Archive for the ‘Targeted advertising’ Category

Getting cookie consent throughout the EU – latest Working Party guidance

Posted on October 19th, 2013 by



Thinking back to the early days when Europe’s controversial “cookie consent” law first passed, many in the privacy community complained about lack of guidance on obtaining consent.  The law required them to get consent, but didn’t say how.

In response to this, legislators and regulators – at both an EU and a national level – responded that consent solutions should be market-led.  The thinking went that the online industry was better placed to innovate creative and unobtrusive ways to get consent than lawyers, regulators and legislative draftsmen.

As it transpired, this is precisely what happened.  In the four years since Europe adopted cookie consent, online operators have now evolved and embraced implied consent models across the EU to obtain their visitors’ consent to cookies.  However, this is not where the story ends.

In an opinion last week, the Article 29 Working Party published further guidance on obtaining cookie consent (“Working Document 02/2013 providing guidance on obtaining consent for cookies” – available here).   This supplements several previous opinions that, directly or indirectly, also address cookie consent requirements (see here, and here, and here, and here, for example).

The rationale behind the latest opinion, on the face of it, is to address the question: “what [cookie consent] implementation would be legally compliant for a website that operates across all EU Member States?”  But in answering this question, the guidance veers towards a level of conservatism that all but ensures it will never see widespread – let alone pan-European – adoption.

It doesn’t start off well: in discussing how a user can signify choice over whether or not to receive cookies, the guidance at one point states: “it could include a handwritten signature affixed at the bottom of a paper form“.

It then goes on to say that “consent has to be given before the processing starts … As a result a website should deliver a consent solution in which no cookies are set to user’s device … before that user has signalled their wishes regarding such cookies.”  In other words, the guidance indicates the need for a pop-up or a barrier page for users to click through before cookies can be set, harking back to the worst fears of industry at the time the cookie consent law was originally proposed.

When we’re talking about a fundamental human right, like privacy, the attraction of prior consent is obvious.  Unfortunately, it’s practically and technically very challenging.  However easy it sounds in theory (and it does sound easy, doesn’t it?), the realities are much more problematic.  For example, do you really require website operators to build two versions of their websites: one with cookies, and one without?  What happens to ‘free’ content on the web whose cost is subsidised by targeted advertising currently – who wants to return to a subscription-funded Internet?  If you’re a third party service provider, how do you guarantee prior consent when it is your customer (the website operator) who has the relationship with its visitors?

More importantly, prior consent is not what the e-Privacy Directive requires.  The word ‘prior’ never appears in the revised Article 5(3) of the e-Privacy Directive (the Article that imposes the consent requirement).  In fact, the word ‘prior’ was originally proposed, but was later dropped during the course of legislative passage.  Contrast this with Article 6(3), for example, which deals with processing of communications metadata (think PRISM) and DOES call for ‘prior’ consent.  Article 13 on unsolicited communications also uses the word ‘prior’ next to its requirement for consent.

What conclusions should we draw from this?  That’s a debate that lawyers, like me, have been having for a long time.  But, frankly, it’s all pretty academic.  Let’s deal instead in realities: if we were to be faced with cookie pop-ups or barrier pages on entry to EVERY website on the Internet, how quickly would we would become fatigued and simply click away the notices just to get rid of them?  What would that say about the validity of any ‘prior’ consents we provide?

Industry evolved implied consent as a solution that struck a balance between protecting individuals’ rights, addressing legal compliance and enabling online business.  Over time, it has done wonders to improve online tracking transparency and choice – implied consent has now become so widespread in the EU that even companies for whom cookies are their lifeblood, like Google, have implemented cookie consent transparency and choice mechanisms.

Critically, when done right, implied consent models fully satisfy the legal requirement that users’ consent must be “freely given, specific and informed”.  So here’s my suggestion: if you are looking to implement a cookie consent solution across Europe, don’t automatically jump to the most conservative standard that will put you out of alignment with your competitors and that, in most cases, will go further than national legislation requires.

Consider, instead, implied consent – but, if you do, embrace it properly:  a slight revision to your privacy policy and a new link to a cookie policy in the footer of your website won’t suffice.  Your implied consent model needs to provide prominent, meaningful notice and choice to visitors.  And to see how to do that, see our earlier post here.

Implied consent getting ever closer in the Netherlands

Posted on May 25th, 2013 by



On 20 May 2013, Dutch Minister Kamp (Minister for Economic Affairs) presented a bill to amend Article 11.7a of the Dutch Telecommunications Act (‘the cookie law’). Once it passes into law the bill will, among other things, allow website operators to rely on visitors’ implied consent to serve cookies and will also exempt analytics cookies from the consent requirement.

Why these changes are needed

In February this year the Dutch government concluded that the cookie law had overshot its intended objective. The current cookie law require website owners to obtain visitors’ opt-in consent to virtually all types of cookies, except those which are strictly necessary. This led to widespread adoption of opt-in consent barriers and pop-up screens which, the Government accepts, is undesirable from both a consumer and business standpoint.

The Government believes the problem with the current law is that it applies equally to all cookies, even those with little privacy impact. Because of this, it proposes that the scope of the consent exemptions should expand to include more types of cookies.

New exemptions: analytics cookies, affiliate cookies and a/b-testing cookies

Currently, a website operator does not have to obtain consent if cookies are strictly necessary to provide a visitor-requested service. Once the bill enters into effect, a further category of cookies will be exempted from the consent requirement – those which are “absolutely necessary […] to obtain information about the quality and effectiveness of an information society service provided  – provided that this has no or little consequences for the privacy of the user.

First-party and third-party analytics cookies, affiliate referral cookies and a/b testing cookies all seem likely to fall within the scope of this new exemption.  However, to ensure that these cookies qualify as having “no or little consequences for the privacy of the user”:

  • the data collected by these cookies must not be used to make a profile of the visitor (e.g. for targeting purposes); and
  • if the website operator shares cookie data with a third party (e.g. an analytics service provider), it must conclude an agreement with the third party that either requires the third party not to use the data for its own purposes or, alternatively, only for defined purposes that have no or little effect on visitors’ privacy.

Implied Consent

For other types of cookies (in particular, targeted advertising cookies), the consent requirements of the cookie law apply in full.  However, the explanatory memorandum to the bill discusses the interpretation of ‘consent’ in great detail and advocates the legal validity of implied consent solutions.

In particular, it advocates that implied consent may be legally derived from the behavior of the visitor of a website – for example, in the case where a visitor is presented with a clear notice about the website’s use of cookies and given options to control those cookies but continues to browse the website.  This is at odds with previous regulatory opinions of the ACM (formerly the OPTA, the relevant regulator for these purposes) which said that implied consent would not constitute valid consent.

Although Dutch recognition of implied consent has been anticipated for a while (see here), this is a critical development for online businesses in the Netherlands.  Once the bill enters into force, website operators will be able to replace their current explicit consent barriers and pop-ups with more user-friendly implied consent banners indicating that continued use of the website without changing cookie settings will constitute consent.

All in all, the bill is a major step towards a more pragmatic implementation of the cookie law. With these changes, Dutch law will better balance the privacy interests of website visitors with online businesses’ legitimate data collection activities.

When will the bill enter into force?

The bill is open for public consultation until 1 July 2013, and the Minister must also consult the Council of State and the Dutch Data Protection Authority. On the basis of the consultation responses, the minister may then decide to amend the bill or submit it to Parliament as currently drafted. Parliamentary discussion can be completed within a few months, but may potentially take up to a year. However, given the current momentum behind adopting a more pragmatic cookie regime in the Netherlands, it is anticipated that the overall process will be toward the shorter end of this timescale.

With thanks to our friends Nicole Wolters Ruckert and Maarten Goudsmit, Privacy Attorneys at Kennedy Van der Laan, for this update. 

 

Cookie consent update – implied consent now widespread

Posted on May 15th, 2013 by



Our latest EU cookie consent tracking table has just been published here.

Latest regional developments:

Our latest table reveals:

* ‘Implied consent’ is currently a valid solution for cookie compliance in nearly three-quarters of EEA Member States.

* Since our last update, cookie consent implementations have been introduced in Norway and Poland.

* Ongoing cookie regulatory developments in Denmark, the Netherlands, Slovenia and Spain.

Other notable developments

Aside from the regional developments shown in our table, other notable developments include:

* Growing recognition that cookie consent is every bit as relevant in mobile platforms as in desktop platforms – see, for example, the Working Party’s latest opinion on mobile apps (here).

* Major online players like Facebook and Google are adopting notice and choice solutions, likely driving wider industry compliance efforts (see here).

* Consumer protection and advertising regulatory bodies like the OFT and ASA are increasingly showing interest in online tracking and notice/choice issues (see here and here).

* Increasing co-operation between global DPAs on online privacy compliance issues (see here).

All in all, online privacy compliance continues to attract ever greater attention, both within data protection circles and from the wider regulatory environment.  As this issue continue to run and run, the picture emerging is that implied consent is the clear compliance front-runner – both from a regulatory and also from a market-adoption perspective.

If Google cares about cookie consent, so should you.

Posted on April 16th, 2013 by



Over the weekend, Google made a subtle – but significant – modification to its online search service in the EU: nearly two years after Europe’s deadline for EU Member States to adopt national cookie consent laws, Google rolled out a cookie consent banner on its EU search sites.

If you’re a visitor from the US, you may have missed it: the banner shows only if you visit Google sites from within the EU. However, EU visitors will clearly see Google’s consent banner placed at the bottom of its main search page and at the top of subsequent search results. As well as informing visitors that “By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies“, the banner provides a “Learn more” link that visitors can click on to watch a video about Google’s cookie use and to see disclosures about the cookies it serves.

This development alone would be significant. But taken together with Facebook’s recent announcement it will deploy the AdChoices icon (another implied consent solution for targeted adverts) on ads served through its FBX exchange, the implications become huge for the following reasons:

* CPOs will find selling cookie consent adoption much easier now. Selling the need to implement cookie consent to the business has always been a challenge. The thinking among marketing, analytics and web operations teams has always been that cookie consent is expensive to implement, time consuming to maintain, and disruptive to the user experience and data collection practices. Other than the occasional penned letter by regulators there’s been no “real” enforcement to date and, with patchy market adoption of cookie consent, many businesses have performed a simple cost / benefit analysis and chosen inaction over compliance. But when two of the Internet’s most heavily scrutinised businesses actively engage with cookie consent, they clearly think it’s an issue worth caring about – and that means it’s an issue YOU need to care about too. The “Google does it” argument is a powerful tool to persuade the business it needs to re-think its strategy and adopt a cookie consent solution.

* Regulatory enforcement just got easier. Rightly or wrongly, a perceived challenge for regulators wanting to enforce non-compliance has been that, before taking measures against the general publisher and advertiser population, they need first to address the behaviours of the major Internet players. While never overtly acknowledged, the underlying concern has been that any business pursued for not adopting a cookie banner would cry “What about them?”, immediately presenting regulators with a challenge: do they continue to pursue that business and risk public criticism for overlooking the bigger fish, or do they pursue the bigger fish and risk getting drawn into expensive, resource-draining legal battles with them? The result to date has been regulatory stalemate, but these developments could unlock this perceived barrier. While it’s not the case that they will result in a sudden flurry of enforcement activity overnight, they are one of many factors that could start to tip the scales towards some form of meaningful enforcement in future.

* Implied consent IS the accepted market standard. When the cookie consent law was first proposed, there were huge concerns that we would be set upon by an avalanche of consent pop-up windows every time we logged online. Whizz forward a few years, and thankfully this hasn’t happened, whatever regulatory preferences may exist for cookie opt-ins. Instead, over time, we’ve seen Member States and – perhaps more importantly – the market grow more and more accepting of implied consent solutions. Adoption by major players like Facebook and Google lend significant credibility to implied consent and smaller businesses will undoubtedly turn to the approaches used by these major players when seeking their own compliance inspiration. Implied consent has become the de facto market standard and seems set to remain that way for the foreseeable future. Businesses delaying compliance adoption due to concerns about the evolution of consent requirements in the EU now have the certainty they need to act.

This post first appeared in the IAPP’s Privacy Perspectives blog, available here.

Europe continues to embrace cookie consent

Posted on February 5th, 2013 by



We’ve just published an updated table of European cookie consent requirements (available here), which makes clear that Member State adoption of local cookie consent laws continues to spread.

Our latest update reveals that:

*  24 out of 30 EEA Member States have now adopted national cookie consent rules.

*  Since our last update, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia have adopted new local laws governing cookie consent.

*  There are ongoing regulatory developments with regard to cookie consent guidance and enforcement in Denmark, Italy, Ireland and the UK.

With cookie consent rules have now been adopted across nearly all European territories, online businesses operating without a notice and consent strategy face real exposure that they need to address and resolve promptly.  And given the recent news of the first ever group privacy claim in the UK relating to cookies, non-compliance risk is rising from “simmering” to “boiling”!

Big Data at risk

Posted on February 1st, 2013 by



“The amount of data in our world has been exploding, and analysing large data sets — so-called Big Data — will become a key basis of competition, underpinning new waves of productivity growth, innovation and consumer surplus”.  Not my words, but those of the McKinsey Global Institute (the business and economics research arm of McKinsey) in a report that evidences like no other the value of data for future economic growth.  However, that value will be seriously at risk if the European Parliament accepts the proposal for a pan-European Regulation currently on the table.

Following the publication by the European Commission last year of a proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation aimed at replacing the current national data protection laws across the EU, at the beginning of 2013, Jan Philipp Albrecht (Rapporteur for the LIBE Committee, which is leading the European Parliament’s position on this matter) published his proposed revised draft Regulation.  

Albrecht’s proposal introduces a wide definition of ‘profiling’, which was covered by the Commission’s proposal but not defined.  Profiling is defined in Albrecht’s proposal as “any form of automated processing of personal data intended to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person or to analyse or predict in particular that natural person’s performance at work, economic situation, location, health, personal preferences, reliability or behaviour“. 

Neither the Commission’s original proposal nor Albrecht’s proposal define “automated processing”.  However, the case law of the European Court of Justice suggests that processing of personal data by automated means (or automated processing) should be understood by contrast with manual processing.   In other words, automated processing is processing carried out by using computers whilst manual processing is processing carried out manually or on paper.  Therefore, the logical conclusion is that the collection of information via the Internet or from transactional records and the placing of that information onto a database — which is the essence of Big Data — will constitute automated processing for the purposes of the definition of profiling in Albrecht’s proposal.

If we link to that the fact that, in a commercial context, all that data will typically be used first to analyse people’s technological comings and goings, and then to make decisions based on perceived preferences and expected behaviours, it is obvious that most activities involving Big Data will fall within the definition of profiling.

The legal threat is therefore very clear given that, under Albrecht’s proposal, any data processing activities that qualify as ‘profiling’ will be unlawful by default unless those are activities are:

*      necessary for entering into or performing a contract at the request of the individual – bearing in mind that “contractual necessity” is very strictly interpreted by the EU data protection authorities to the point that if the processing is not strictly necessary from the point of view of the individuals themselves, it will not be regarded as necessary;

*      expressly authorised by EU or Member State law – which means that a statutory provision has to specifically allow such activities; or

*      with the individual’s consent – which must be specific, informed, explicit and freely given, taking into account that under Albrecht’s proposal, consent is not valid where the data controller is in a dominant market position or where the provision of a service is made conditional on the permission to use someone’s data.

In addition, there is a blanket prohibition on profiling activities involving sensitive personal data, discriminatory activities or children data.

So the outlook is simple: either the European Parliament figures out how to regulate profiling activities in a more balanced way or Big Data will become No Data.

 

What will happen once the ASA starts to regulate Online Behavioural Advertising?

Posted on December 11th, 2012 by



Early next year, the UK Advertising Standards Authority (“ASA“) will start regulating Online Behavioural Advertising (“OBA“) in the UK – meaning that online advertisers who serve targeted ads to website visitors will have to worry not only about the risk of cookie consent enforcement by the ICO, but also the risk of investigation and public admonishment by the ASA.  A regulatory double-jeopardy, if you will.

This is a consequence of recent changes to the “UK Code of Non-broadcast Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing” (“CAP Code“) that will come into effect on 4 February 2013.  In effect, the CAP Code changes are designed to implement the earlier European Advertising Standards Alliance “Best Practice Recommendation on Online Behavioural Advertising” published in April 2011 – which, you may recall, the Article 29 Working Party wasn’t exactly excited about

Anyone who’s read the EASA recommendation won’t be surprised by the CAP Code’s proposals – that website visitors must be given notice and choice, with advertisers encouraged to display a small icon licensed by the European Interactive Digital Advertising Alliance (or eDAA) alongside the adverts they serve by way of achieving this goal.  Nor will they be surprised by the ‘gaps’ in the CAP Code, most notably that it doesn’t apply to first party tracking by a publisher across its own website domains.

But what are the real consequences of the ASA wading into the murky waters of OBA regulation?   Broadly speaking, they can be boiled down to the following:

1.  Cookie regulation is not going to go away.  The revised CAP Code is simply implementing recommendations already published at a European level by the European Advertising Standards Alliance.  When it published its recommendations, EASA set an ambitious – and, as it turned out, unrealistic – goal of ensuring “at least 70% of its EU SROs [national advertising self-regulatory organisations] have implemented the BPR [best practice recommendation] within a year (i.e. by the end of April 2012)“.  When the UK took the lead on implementing cookie consent rules and guidance, other EU member states quickly followed suit – so it seems a relatively safe bet here that a similar regulatory flurry will follow now among EU advertising regulators.  This means that the amount of national regulation governing online tracking will continue to grow, not decline – with all the disharmony that entails. 

2.  Confusion about what qualifies as lawful visitor tracking.   Being based on the EASA best practice recommendation, the CAP Code promotes a notice and opt-out approach.  That’s fine, but it’s not the law – which instead requires consent when serving tracking cookies.  The Article 29 Working Party have already been vocal in expressing their view that the EASA recommendation is not sufficient for obtaining consent, and CAP even acknowledges likewise – the new rules say that they “are not designed to provide compliance with the law and companies should seek their own legal advice when working to comply with privacy and data protection legislation.  The net result?  Yet more confusion about what standards, exactly, businesses are to apply when tracking online visitors.  It seems an inevitability that many businesses will (mistakenly) assume that compliance with the CAP Code is, in itself, sufficient to comply with legal cookie consent requirements – risking exposure under local data protection laws.

3.  Expansion in enforcement remit for the ASA:  The new rules regulating website tracking for targeted advertising are interesting for another reason:  they represent a significant expansion of the ASA’s enforcement remit beyond simply regulating the content of adverts into regulating the technology used to generate and deliver those advert.   The ASA’s remit already underwent a massive expansion in March 2011 when it grew beyond adverts in paid-for space to also include marketers’ own websites and communications on social networks, amid concerns over the ASA’s resourcing to effectively regulate these spaces.  That expanded remit could at least be characterised in terms of the ASA doing ‘more of the same’ online; this time around, however, its further expanded remit will require it to develop technological knowledge and skillsets it may not currently possess – raising questions over how consistent and effective its enforcement will be.

4.  Prepare for real enforcement.  Historically, the ASA has generally proven itself a better resourced and more active regulator than the ICO, having forced changes to or the withdrawal of some 4,591 ads in 2011 from a total of nearly 32,000 complaints.  While it doesn’t have the ability to fine, ASA investigations are costly, time-consuming and can result in embarrassing adjudications that are made publicly available and widely reported by the press.  The ASA is also a more familiar regulatory “brand” to many consumers who may more instinctively complain to the ASA than the ICO with concerns about targeted ads.  Long story short, there’s a good chance the ASA may well prove a more active regulator of targeted advertising than the ICO once the new rules come into effect.

So what does all this mean?  Ultimately, that online visitor tracking will remain high on the regulatory agenda for some time to come and, while it does so, the likelihood of some manner of regulatory enforcement grows all the time.  What form that enforcement will take – whether by a data protection authority, an advertising standards authority, or a consumer protection body, and whether in the UK, rest of Europe or even by a country outside the EU – remains to be seen. 

All that can be said with certainty is that businesses that aren’t already thinking about their visitor transparency, choice and education strategies for their website tracking need to get their act together and do so – now!

Consent revisited

Posted on October 4th, 2012 by



If there was a prize for the most controversial provision in the draft EU Data Protection Regulation, it would probably be won by the article dealing with consent.  From Member States’ governments to European Parliament’s committees, everyone seems to have a very strong opinion of that article.  A number of European governments have already used their representation on the Council of the EU to criticise the legal uncertainty created by the draft provision.  The level of disagreement with the Commission’s proposal is perhaps not surprising given the elevated and rather emotional role that consent has in privacy matters and the potentially catastrophic consequences of setting the bar for valid consent either too low or too high.  But the point is that once again, the issue of individual’s consent is proving to be an uneasy one, to say the least.

This controversy is not driven by a purely academic interest about what may or may not happen in a few years’ time when the Regulation is adopted.  Consent is a legal basis for collecting and exploiting personal information today, and in some cases, there is little or no option than to get people’s permission to use their data.  Without a doubt, the most vibrant and present legal dilemma regarding what qualifies as consent is taking place in the context of cookies and anything else that amounts to storing or accessing information stored on someone’s device.  If it wasn’t for the innate human difficulty in establishing what kind of conduct may amount to consent, it would be odd to think that after more than 3 years of heated debate about the cookie consent rule, we still are nowhere near finding a solution that everyone is happy with.

Some attempts to find a middle ground between a rock-solid, unflappably demonstrable opt-in consent and the mere assumption that anything goes when people surf the net have been made in recent times but many of the approaches adopted by European websites fall short of the necessary standards.  So how can consent be obtained on the Internet other than by ticking a box?  Is the concept of implied consent – so commonly used and relied upon in our ordinary comings and goings in the offline world – a workable way forward online?  There isn’t a reason why it shouldn’t but to achieve a reasonable degree of legal certainty, some minimum conditions ought to be met as otherwise, we will be back to the assumption that unless someone makes a big deal of it, anything goes when you go online.

One could probably write a long academic article about this, but at a practical level it is possible to distil the conditions for valid implied consent into four ‘must have’ elements:

*     Deploying a visible and prominent cookie notice – For someone to be in a position to have a say on anything, they really need to know what’s going on.  So in the context of websites, that means that visitors must be presented with some kind of sufficiently clear and ‘in your face’ notice, so that it is obvious to the average user what is happening.  That way, a visitor’s indication of wishes is impliedly given when they see the cookie notice, understand its meaning and rely on the functionality available to make their cookie choices. 

*     Identifying the specific conduct that amounts to consent – Whether it is closing a box, opening a page, clicking on a link or continuing to use the site, the notice must spell out what specific action or conduct undertaken by a visitor will amount to consent to cookies being set or accessed.  Otherwise, the website operator will never truly know whether the visitor accepts the use of cookies on their device.  At the very least, if an assumption is being made that the visitor is happy to receive cookies, say so!

*     Providing a mechanism for control and decision making – The flipside of agreeing to something is having the ability to object to it.  Otherwise, there is no real choice.  With cookies, a ‘take it or leave it’ approach is still a choice, but not a genuine one.  Therefore, as part of the process of obtaining consent, website visitors should be able to make their choices freely and refuse the use of cookies (other than those that fall under the strictly necessary exemption) at any time and through simple means, even if it means that the site’s functionality is limited for the user as a result.  In an ideal world, these controls need to be sufficiently granular to allow visitors to accept the types of cookies they are happy to receive and to refuse those they are not.

*     Spelling out what cookies are for – Finally, clear and comprehensive information about the use of cookies through the site must be continuously and readily available to satisfy the transparency requirements under European data protection law.  The law is not prescriptive about the way that this information should be provided, but it should be sufficiently full and intelligible to allow individuals to clearly understand the potential consequences of allowing cookies in their devices.

The debate about whether consent should be a requirement to collect and use people’s information will no doubt continue and intensify as that information becomes more and more valuable.  Whether we will ever have a definitive answer is yet to be seen but in the meantime, let’s try to look at technology as an enabler for individual choice.  We may be surprised of what is possible.

 

This article was first published in Data Protection Law & Policy in September 2012.

Why the Big Buzz about Big Data?

Posted on June 29th, 2012 by



Another year, another buzz word, and this time around it’s “Big Data” that’s getting everyone’s attention. But what exactly is Big Data, and why is everyone – commercial organisations, regulators and lawyers – so excited about it?

Put simply, the term Big Data refers to datasets that are very, very large – so large that, traditionally, supercomputers would ordinarily have been required to process them. But, with the irrepressible evolution of technology, falling computing costs, and scalable, distributed data processing models (think cloud computing) Big Data processing is increasingly within the capability of most commercial and research organisations.

In its oft-quoted article “The Data Deluge”, the Economist reports that “Everywhere you look, the quantity of information in the world is soaring. According to one estimate, mankind created 150 exabytes (billion gigabytes) of data in 2005. [In 2010], it will create 1,200 exabytes.“  Let’s put that in perspective – 1,200 exabytes is 1,200,000,000,000 gigabytes of data. A typical Blu-Ray disc can hold 25 gigabytes – so 1,200 exabytes is about the equivalent of about 48 billion Blu-Ray discs. Estimating your typical Blu-Ray movie at about 2 hours long (excluding special features and the like), then there’s at least 96 billion hours of viewing time there, or about 146,000 human life times.  OK, this is a slightly fatuous example, but you get my point – and bear in mind that global data is growing year-on-year at an exponential rate so these figures are already well out of date.

Much of this Big Data will be highly personal to us: think about the value of the data we all put “out there” when we shop online or post status updates, photos and other content through our various social networking accounts (I have at least 5). And don’t forget the search terms we post when we use our favourite search engines, or the data we generate when using mobile – particularly location-enabled – services. Imagine how organisations, if they had access to all this information, could use it to better advertise their products and services, roadmap product development to take account of shifting consumer patterns, spot and respond to potentially-brand damaging viral complaints – ultimately, keep their customers happier and improve their revenues.

The potential benefits of Big Data are vast and, as yet, still largely unrealised. It goes against the grain of any privacy professional to admit that there are societal advantages to data maximisation, but it would be disingenuous to deny this. Peter Fleischer, Google’s Privacy Counsel, expressed it very eloquently on his blog when he wrote “I’m sure that more and more data will be shared and published, sometimes openly to the Web, and sometimes privately to a community of friends or family. But the trend is clear. Most of the sharing will be utterly boring: nope, I don’t care what you had for breakfast today. But what is boring individually can be fascinating in crowd-sourcing terms, as big data analysis discovers ever more insights into human nature, health, and economics from mountains of seemingly banal data bits. We already know that some data sets hold vast information, but we’ve barely begun to know how to read them yet, like genomes. Data holds massive knowledge and value, even, perhaps especially, when we do not yet know how to read it. Maybe it’s a mistake to try to minimize data generation and retention. Maybe the privacy community’s shibboleth of data deletion is a crime against science, in ways that we don’t even understand yet.” (You can access Peter’s blog “Privacy…?” here.)

This quote raises the interesting question of whether the compilation and analysis of Big Data sets should really be considered personal data processing. Of course, many of the individual records within commercial Big Data sets will be personal – but the true value of Big Data processing is often (though not always) in the aggregate trends and patterns they reveal – less about predicting any one individual’s behaviours, reactions and preferences, and more about understanding the global picture. Perhaps its time that we stop thinking of privacy in terms of merely collecting data, and look more to the intrusiveness (or otherwise) of the purposes to which our data are put?

This is perhaps something for a wider, philosophical debate about the pros and cons of Big Data, and I wouldn’t claim to have the answers. What I can say, though, is that Big Data faces some big issues under data protection law as it stands today, not least in terms of data protection principles that mandate user notice and choice, purpose limitation, data minimisation, data retention and – of course – data exports. These are not issues that will go away under the new General Data Protection Regulation which, as if to gear itself up for a fight with Big Data proponents, further bolsters transparency, consent and data minimisation principles, while also proposing a new, highly controversial ‘right to be forgotten’.

So what can and should Big Data collectors do for now? Fundamentally, accountability for the data you collect and process will be key. Your data subjects need to understand how their data will be used, both at the individual and the Big Data level, to feel in control of this and to be comforted that their data won’t be used in ways that sit outside their reasonable expectations of privacy. This is not just a matter of external facing privacy policies, but also a matter of carefully-constructed internal policies that impose sensible checks and balances on the organisation’s use of data. It’s also about adopting Privacy Impact Assessments as a matter of organisational culture to identify and address risks whenever using Big Data analysis for new or exciting reasons.

Big Data is, and should be, the future of data processing, and our laws should not prevent this. But, equally, organisations need to be careful that they do not see the Big Data age as a free for all hunting season on user data that invades personal privacy and control. Big issues for Big Data indeed.

Mobile privacy – is there an app for that?

Posted on April 20th, 2012 by



Next week I’ll be chairing a session at the IAPP’s Data Protection Intensive in London on mobile privacy. In advance of my session (and without giving too much away – I highly recommend attending the event!), I thought I’d set out a few key thoughts on the issues mobile operators and developers need to consider when launching mobile apps:

  • Why does m-privacy matter? It’s simple: if you’re anything like me, your mobile device has become your closest, must trusted friend. No one know more about you: your phone knows where you go, who you know, and the passwords to your banking, shopping and social networking accounts. It looks after your diary and has access to all your most treasured and personal photos. This is all very sensitive information – and your phone holds an awful lot of it.
  • Why is m-privacy hard (practically)? Because the actors, devices and consumer expectations are so many and so varied. In the course of downloading, installing and running an app, a consumer will share data with or through its device platform, the relevant app marketplace, the application developer, and various ad networks, analytics providers, payment processors and mobile carriers. Consumers can access apps through smartphones, tablets, netbooks or other mobile devices – each with different platforms having their own data access permissions, device unique data types, and screen sizes and resolutions, thereby making efforts to design a simple ‘one size fits all’ privacy notice a real challenge. Adopting a privacy by design approach is not a nice to have in the mobile environment – it’s a necessity.
  • Why is m-privacy hard (legally)? From a privacy perspective, data protection, e-privacy, communications interception and data retention laws – both in the EU and beyond – can all apply to data collected from mobile devices. Widen the picture out into general consumer law, and issues arise around applicable law, mandatory consumer terms, liability and enforceability of terms (to name but a few). As a few press reports have highlighted recently, just because you CAN access data, doesn’t mean you should – the recent furore surrounding the Girls Around Me app being a very good case in point (see here). And to make matters more complicated, the data protection laws we have can often apply in surprising and unexpected ways – remember, many of them date back to before any of us even had a mobile. Should device ID data really be considered ‘personal data’? Why do ‘cookie consent’ rules apply to mobile apps? Do SoLoMo applications REALLY need to get opt-in consent to location data use?

If you’re attending the IAPP Intensive next week, then do come along and join my session to answer all of these questions – and more!